Yearly Archive 2018

Byweixiaobo

The Atari experience helped shape Jobs’s approach

The Atari experience helped shape Jobs’s approach

to business and design. He appreciated the

user-friendliness of Atari’s insert-quarter-avoid-Klingons

 

games. “That simplicity rubbed off on him and made him

a very focused product person,” said Ron Wayne. .

Jobs also absorbed some of Bushnell’s take-no-prisoners attitude.

“Nolan wouldn’t take no for an answer,”

 

“I would rather let it pass,” he said when I pressed the point.

“It’s not something I want to judge Steve by.”

 

 

He confirmed his memory with Nolan

Bushnell and Al Alcorn. “I remember

talking about the bonus money to Woz,

 

and he was upset,” Bushnell said. “I said yes,

there was a bonus for each chip they saved,

and he just shook his head and

then clucked his tongue.”

 

In addition to their interest in computers,

they shared a passion for music.

“It was an incredible time for music,”

 

 

Jobs recalled. “It was like living at a time when

Beethoven and Mozart were alive. Really. People

will look back on it that way. And Woz and I were

 

deeply into it.” In particular, Wozniak turned Jobs

on to the glories of Bob Dylan.

 

“We tracked down this guy in Santa Cruz who put

out this newsletter on Dylan,” Jobs said. “Dylan

taped all of his concerts, and some of the people

 

around him were not scrupulous, because soon

there were tapes all around. Bootlegs of everything.

And this guy had them all.”

 

Hunting down Dylan tapes soon became a joint

venture. “The two of us would go tramping through

San Jose and Berkeley and ask about Dylan bootlegs

 

and collect them,” said Wozniak. “We’d buy brochures

of Dylan lyrics and stay up late interpreting them.

Dylan’s words struck chords of creative thinking.”

 

Added Jobs, “I had more than a hundred hours,

including every concert on the ’65 and ’66 tour,”

the one where Dylan went electric. Both of them

 

bought high-end TEAC reel-to-reel tape decks.

“I would use mine at a low speed to record many

concerts on one tape,” said Wozniak.

 

Jobs matched his obsession:

“Instead of big speakers I bought a pair

of awesome headphones and would just

 

lie in my bed and listen to that stuff for hours.”

Jobs had formed a club at Homestead High to

put on music-and-light shows and also play

 

pranks. (They once glued a gold-painted toilet

seat onto a flower planter.) It was called the

Buck Fry Club, a play on the name of the principal.

 

Even though they had already graduated, Wozniak

and his friend Allen Baum joined forces with Jobs,

at the end of his junior year, to produce a farewell

 

gesture for the departing seniors. Showing off the

Homestead campus four decades later, Jobs paused

at the scene of the escapade and pointed. “See that

 

balcony? That’s where we did the banner prank that

sealed our friendship.” On a big bedsheet Baum had

tie-dyed with the school’s green and white colors,

 

they painted a huge hand flipping the middle-finger

salute. Baum’s nice Jewish mother helped them draw

it and showed them how to do the shading and

 

shadows to make it look more real.

“I know what that is,” she snickered. They devised a

system of ropes and pulleys so that it could be

 

dramatically lowered as the graduating class

marched past the balcony, and they signed it

“SWAB JOB,” the initials of Wozniak and Baum

combined with part of Jobs’

s name. The prank
became part of school
lore—and got Jobs
suspended one more time.
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Byweixiaobo

When Mike Markkula joined Jobs and Wozniak

When Mike Markkula joined Jobs and Wozniak

to turn their fledgling partnership into the Apple

Computer Co. in January 1977, they valued it at $5,309.

 

Less than four years later they decided it was time

to take it public. It would become the most oversubscribed

initial public offering since that of Ford Motors in 1956.

 

By the end of December 1980, Apple would be valued at $1.79

billion. Yes, billion. In the process it would

make three hundred people millionaires.

 

Much of the work was done in the garage of a friend just around the corner,

Bill Fernandez, who was still at Homestead High. To lubricate their efforts, they drank large amounts of Cragmont cream

soda, riding their bikes to the Sunnyvale Safeway to return the bottles, collect the deposits, and buy more. “That’s how we started referring to it as the Cream Soda Computer,” Wozniak recalled.

It was basically a calculator capable of multiplying numbers entered by a set of switches and displaying the results in binary code with little lights.

When it was finished, Fernandez told Wozniak there was someone at Homestead High he should meet. “His name is Steve. He likes to do pranks like you do, and he’s also into building electronics like you are.” It may have been the most significant meeting in a Silicon Valley garage since Hewlett went into

Packard’s thirty-two years earlier. “Steve and I just sat on the sidewalk in front of Bill’s house for the longest time, just sharing stories—mostly about pranks we’d pulled, and also what kind of electronic designs we’d done,” Wozniak recalled. “We had so much in common. Typically, it was really hard for me to

explain to people what kind of design stuff I worked on, but Steve got it right away. And I liked him. He was kind of skinny and wiry and full of energy.” Jobs was also impressed. “Woz was the first

person I’d met who knew more electronics than I did,” he once said, stretching his own expertise. “I liked him right away. I was a little more mature than my years, and he was a little less
mature than his, so it
evened out. Woz was
very bright, but
emotionally he was my age.”
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Byweixiaobo

Rod Holt, the engineer who had built the power supply,

Rod Holt, the engineer who had built the power supply,

was getting a lot of options, and he tried to turn Jobs around.

“We have to do something for your buddy Daniel,” he said, and

 

he suggested they each give him some of their own options.

“Whatever you give him, I will match it,” said Holt. Replied Jobs,

“Okay. I will give him zero.”

 

so I didn’t push,” said Kottke. The official reason he wasn’t given

stock options was that he was an hourly technician, not a salaried

engineer, which was the cutoff level for options. Even so, he could

 

have justifiably been given “founder’s stock,” but Jobs decided not to.

“Steve is the opposite of loyal,” according to Andy Hertz-feld, an early

Apple engineer who has nevertheless remained friends with him.

“He’s anti-loyal. He has to abandon the people he is close to.”

 

a breadboard. “While Steve was breadboarding, I spent time playing my

favorite game ever, which was the auto racing game Gran Trak 10,” Wozniak said.

Astonishingly, they were able to get the job done in four days, and

Wozniak used only forty-five chips. Recollections differ, but by most

accounts Jobs simply gave Wozniak half of the base fee and not the bonus

Bushnell paid for saving five chips. It would be another ten years before

Wozniak discovered (by being shown the tale in a book on the history of

Atari titled Zap) that Jobs had been paid this bonus. “I think that Steve needed

the money, and he just didn’t tell me the truth,” Wozniak later said.

When he talks about it now, there are long pauses, and he admits that it

causes him pain. “I wish he had just been honest. If he had told me he

needed the money, he should have known I would have just given it to

him. He was a friend. You help your friends.” To Wozniak, it showed

a fundamental difference in their characters. “Ethics always mattered to me,

and I still don’t understand why he would’ve gotten paid one thing and told

me he’d gotten paid another,” he said. “But, you know, people are different.”

When Jobs learned this story was published, he called Wozniak to deny it.

“He told me that he didn’t remember doing it, and that if he did something

like that he would remember it, so he probably didn’t do it,” Wozniak recalled.

When I asked Jobs directly, he became unusually quiet and hesitant.

“I don’t know where that allegation comes from,” he said. “I gave him

half the money I ever got. That’s how I’ve always been with Woz. I mean,

Woz stopped working in 1978. He never did one ounce

of work after 1978.

And yet he got exactly

the same shares of

Apple stock that I did.”

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Byweixiaobo

of a small development project code-named “Annie”

of a small development project code-named “Annie” to do just that. Since Raskin thought it was sexist to name computers after women, he redubbed the project in honor of his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh. But he

changed the spelling in order not to conflict with the name of the audio equipment maker McIntosh Laboratory. The proposed computer became known as the Macintosh.

San Diego argued that computers should have graphical rather than text-based interfaces. When he got fed up with

teaching, he rented a hot air balloon, flew over the chancellor’s house, and shouted down his decision to quit.

your intuition starts to blossom and you start to see things more clearlyand be in the present more. Your mind just slows down, and you see

Bruce Horn was one of the programmers at Xerox PARC. When some of his friends, such as Larry Tesler, decided to join the

Macintosh group, Horn considered going there as well. But he got a good offer, and a $15,000 signing bonus, to join another

company. Jobs called him on a Friday night. “You have to come into Apple tomorrow morning,” he said.

a tremendous expanse in the moment. You see so much more than

you could see before. It’s a discipline; you have to practice it.

Zen has been a deep influence in my life ever since. At one point

I was thinking about going to Japan and trying to get into the

Eihei-ji monastery, but my spiritual advisor urged me to stay here.

He said there is nothing over there that isn’t here, and he was correct.

I learned the truth of the Zen saying that if you are willing to travel around

the world to meet a teacher, one will appear next door.

Jobs did in fact find a teacher right in his own neighborhood. Shunryu Suzuki,

who wrote Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind and ran the San Francisco Zen Center,

used to come to Los Altos every Wednesday evening to lecture and meditate

with a small group of followers. After a while he asked his assistant,

Kobun Chino Otogawa, to open a full-time center there. Jobs became

a faithful follower, along with his occasional girlfriend, Chrisann Brennan,

and Daniel Kottke and Elizabeth Holmes. He also began to go by himself on

retreats to the

Tassajara Zen Center,

a monastery near

Carmel where

Kobun also taught.

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Byweixiaobo

I have been waiting here a long time. Do not run away cried Cao Cao

Getting shocked was a badge of honor for Woz.

He prided himself on being a hardware engineer, which meant that random shocks were routine. He once devised a roulette game where four people put their thumbs in a slot; when the ball landed, one would get shocked. “Hardware guys will play this game, but software guys are too chicken,” he noted.

 

During his senior year he got a part-time job at Sylvania and had the

But Yang Feng fell into an ambush. Suddenly the whole mountain side was lit up with torches and out sprang Cao Cao’s troops, he himself being in command.

  “I have been waiting here a long time. Do not run away!” cried Cao Cao.

  Yang Feng was completely surprised and tried to draw off, but was quickly surrounded. then Han Xian came to his rescue, and a confused battle began. Yang Feng succeeded in escaping, while Cao Cao kept up the attack on the two disordered armies. A GREat number of the rebels gave in, and the leaders found they had too few men left to maintain their independence, so they betook themselves to Yuan Shu.

  When Cao Cao returned to camp, the newly surrendered general was presented and well received. Then again the cavalcade set out for the new capital. In due time they reached Xuchang, and they built palaces and halls, an ancestral temple and an altar, terraces and public offices. The walls were repaired, storehouses built and all put in order.

Yang Feng was completely surprised and tried to draw off

Cao Cao was then the one man of the court. All memorials went first to him and were then submitted to the Throne. When state matters were in order, Cao Cao gave a GREat banquet in his private quarters to all his advisers, and affairs outside the capital were the subject of discussion.
  then Cao Cao said, “Liu Bei has his army at Xuzhou, and he carries on the administration of the region. Lu Bu fled to Liu Bei when defeated, and Liu Bei gave Lu Bu Xiaopei to live in. If these two aGREed to join forces and attack, my position would be most serious. What precautions can be taken?”
  then rose Xu Chu, saying, “Give me fifty thousand of picked soldiers, and I will give the Prime Minister both their heads.”

  Xun Yu said, “O Leader, you are brave, but we must consider the present circumstance. We cannot start a sudden war just as the capital has been changed. However, there is a certain ruse known as ‘Rival Tigers and One Prey.’ Liu Bei has no decree authorizing him to govern the region. You, Sir Prime Minister, can procure one for him, and when sending it, and so conferring upon him right in addition to

his might, you can enclose a private note telling him to get rid of Lu Bu. If he does, then he will have lost a vigorous warrior

from his side, and he could be dealt with as occasions serve. Should he fail, then Lu Bu will slay him. This is ‘Rival Tigers and One Prey’ ruse; they wrangle and bite each other.”

  then said Man Chong, “There are very few as bold as you on the earth. Why then do you serve such as your present chiefs, Yang Feng and Han Xian? My master is the most prominent man in the world——a man who delights in wise people and appreciates soldiers as everyone knows. Your valor today won his entire admiration, and so he took care that the attack was not vigorous enough to sacrifice you. Now he has sent me to invite you to join him. Will you not leave darkness for light and help him in his magnificent task?”

On Thanksgiving weekend of his senior year, Wozniak visited the University of Colorado. It was closed for the holiday, but he found an engineering student who took him on a tour of the labs.

He begged his father to let him go there, even though the out-of-state tuition was more than the family could easily afford. They struck a deal:

He would be allowed to go for one year, but then he would transfer to De Anza Community College back home. After arriving at Colorado in the fall of 1969, he spent so much time playing pranks (such as producing reams of printouts saying “Fuck Nixon”) that he failed a couple of his courses and was put on probation.

In addition, he created a program to calculate Fibonacci numbers that burned up so much computer time the university threatened to bill him for
the cost. So he readily
lived up to his bargain
with his parents and
transferred to De Anza.
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Byweixiaobo

Cao Cao saw that he and his guest had much in common

By fourth grade Wozniak became, as he put it, one of the “electronics kids.” He had
an easier time making eye contact with a transistor than with a girl, and he developed the
chunky and stooped look of a guy who spends most of his time hunched over circuit boards.

At the same age when Jobs was puzzling over a carbon microphone that his dad couldn’t explain,
Wozniak was using transistors to build an intercom system featuring amplifiers, relays, lights,
and buzzers that connected the kids’ bedrooms of six houses in the neighborhood. And at an age when

“Do they mistrust me?” said Cao Cao.

  “they are not worthy of your attention. They are a poor lot.”

  “What of this departure of Li Jue and Guo Si?”

  “Tigers without claws, birds without wings——they will not escape you very long. They are not worth thinking about.”

  Cao Cao saw that he and his guest had much in common, so he began to talk of affairs of state.

  Said Dong Zhao, “You, Illustrious Sir, with your noble army have swept away rebellion and have become the mainstay of the Throne, an achievement worthy of the ancient Five Protectors. But the officials will look at it in very different ways and not all favorably to you. I think you would not be wise to remain here, and I advise a change of capital to Xuchang. However, it must be remembered that the restoration of the capital has been published far and wide and the attention of all the people is concentrated on Luoyang, hoping for a period of rest and tranquillity. Another move will displease many. However, the performance of extraordinary deed may mean the acquisition of extraordinary merit. It is for you to decide.”

  “Exactly my own inclination!” said Cao Cao, seizing his guest’s hand. “But are there not dangers? Yang Feng at Daliang and the court officials!”

  “That is easily managed. Write to Yang Feng and set his mind at rest. then say to the high officials plainly that there is no food in the capital here, and so you are going to another place where there is, and where there is no danger of scarcity. When they hear it, they will approve.”

  Cao Cao had now decided; and as his guest took leave, Cao Cao seized his hands once more, saying, “I shall need your advice in future affairs.”

Jobs was building Heathkits, Wozniak was assembling a transmitter and receiver from Hallicrafters,
the most sophisticated radios available.

Woz spent a lot of time at home reading his father’s electronics journals, and he became enthralled
by stories about new computers, such as the powerful ENIAC. Because Boolean algebra came naturally
to him, he marveled at how simple, rather than complex, the computers were. In eighth grade he built

a calculator that included one hundred transistors, two hundred diodes, and two hundred resistors on ten
circuit boards. It won top prize in a local contest run by the Air Force, even though the competitors
included students through twelfth grade.

Woz became more of a loner when the boys his age began going out with girls and partying,
endeavors that he found far more complex than designing circuits. “Where before I was popular
and riding bikes and everything, suddenly I was socially shut out,” he recalled. “It seemed
like nobody spoke to me for the longest time.” He found an outlet by playing juvenile pranks.
In twelfth grade he built an electronic metronome—one of those tick-tick-tick devices that keep
time in music class—and realized it sounded like a bomb. So he took the labels off some big batteries,
taped them together, and put it in a school locker; he rigged it to start ticking faster when the locker
opened. Later that day he got called to the principal’s office. He thought it was because he had won, yet again,
the school’s top math prize. Instead he was confronted by the police. The principal had been summoned when the device was
found, bravely ran onto the football field clutching it to his chest, and pulled the wires off. Woz tried and
failed to suppress his laughter. He actually got sent to the juvenile detention center, where he spent the
night. It was a memorable experience. He taught the other prisoners how to disconnect the wires leading to

the ceiling fans and
connect them to the bars
so people got shocked
when touching them.
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Byweixiaobo

was almost five years older than Jobs and far more Jobs,

was almost five years older than Jobs and far more
knowledgeable about electronics. But emotionally and socially he was still a high school geek.

While a student in McCollum’s class, Jobs became friends with a graduate who was the teacher’s
all-time favorite and a school legend for his wizardry in the class. Stephen Wozniak, whose younger
brother had been on a swim team with Jobs,

 

 

Like Jobs, Wozniak learned a lot at his father’s knee. But their lessons were different.
Paul Jobs was a high school dropout who, when fixing up cars, knew how to turn a tidy
profit by striking the right deal on parts. Francis Wozniak, known as Jerry,

was a brilliant
engineering graduate from Cal Tech, where he had quarterbacked the football team, who became
a rocket scientist at Lockheed. He exalted engineering and looked down on those in business,
marketing, and sales. “I remember him telling me that engineering was the highest level of
importance you could reach in the world,” Steve Wozniak later recalled. “It takes society to a new level.”

One of Steve Wozniak’s first memories was going to his father’s workplace on a weekend
and being shown electronic parts, with his dad “putting them on a table with me so I got to play with them.” He watched with fascination as his father tried to get a waveform line on a video screen to stay flat so he could show that one of his circuit designs was working properly. “I could see that whatever my dad was doing, it was important and good.” Woz, as he was known even then, would ask about the resistors and transistors lying around the house, and his father would pull out a blackboard to illustrate what they did. “He would explain what a resistor was by going all the way back to atoms and electrons. He explained how resistors worked when I was in second grade, not by equations but by having me picture it.”

Woz’s father taught him something else that became ingrained in his childlike, socially awkward personality: Never lie. “My dad believed in honesty. Extreme honesty. That’s the biggest thing he taught me. I never lie, even to this day.” (The only partial exception was in the service of a good practical joke.) In addition, he imbued his son with an aversion to extreme ambition, which set Woz apart from Jobs. At an Apple product launch event in 2010, forty years after they met, Woz reflected on their differences. “My father told me, ‘You always want to be in the middle,’” he said. “I didn’t want to be up with the high-level people like Steve. My dad was an engineer,

and that’s what
I wanted to be. I was way
too shy ever to be a
business leader like Steve.”
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Byweimiaow

And he drew his sword on Jia Xu. But the other officers

And he drew his sword on Jia Xu. But the other officers interceded and saved the adviser.

That same night Jia Xu stole out of the camp and, quite alone, took his way home to his native village.

  Soon the rebels decided to offer battle. In reply, Cao Cao sent out Xu Chu, Cao Ren, and Dian Wei with three hundred horse. These three leaders dashed into the rebels army but quickly retired. This maneuver was repeated, and again repeated before the real battle array was formed.

  then Li Xian and Li Bie, nephews of Li Jue, rode out. At once from Cao Cao’s side dashed out Xu Chu and cut down Li Xian. Li Bie was so startled that he fell out of the saddle. He too was slain. The victor Xu Chu rode back to his own side with the two heads.

  [e] Fan Kuai (BC ?-189) a brave general of Liu Bang. He and Liu Bang had been close friends in their native Pei, where he was a butcher and Liu Bang later held a minor office. Enobled as Lord of Zuo. ……

  When Xu Chu offered them to the chief, Cao Cao patted him on the back, crying, “You are really my Fan Kuai*!”

  Next a general move forward was made, Xiahou Dun and Cao Hong leading the two wings and Cao Cao in the center. They advanced to the roll of the drum. The rebels fell back before them and presently fled. They pursued, Cao Cao himself leading, sword in hand. The slaughter went on till night. Ten thousands were killed and many more surrendered.

Li Jue and Guo Si went west,

flying in panic like dogs from a falling house.

Having no place of refuge they took to the hills

and hid among the brushwood.

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Byweimiaow

In a short time Cao Hong, Li Dian, and Yue Jing came

In a short time Cao Hong, Li Dian, and Yue Jing came

to the imperial chariot and their names having been duly communicated.

Cao Hong said, “When my brother, Cao Cao, heard of the approach of the rebels, he feared that the advance guard he had sent might be too weak, so he sent me to march quickly for reinforcement.”

  “General Cao Cao is indeed a trusty servant!” said the Emperor.

  Orders were given to advance, Cao Hong leading the escort. By and by scouts came to say that the rebels were coming up very quickly. The Emperor bade Xiahou Dun divide his force into two parts to oppose them. Xiahou Dun and Cao Hong’s armies threw out two wings with cavalry in front and foot behind. They attacked with vigor and beat off the Li Jue and Guo Si’s rebels with severe loss of ten thousand. Then Xiahou Dun and Cao Hong begged the Emperor to return to Luoyang, and Xiahou Dun guarded the city.

  Next day Cao Cao came with his GREat army, and having got them duly camped he went into the city to audience. He knelt at the foot of the steps, but was called up hither to stand beside the Emperor and be thanked.

  Cao Cao replied, “Having been the recipient of GREat bounty, thy servant owes the state much gratitude. The measure of evil of the two rebels is full, I have two hundred thousand of good soldiers to oppose them, and those soldiers are fully equal to securing the safety of Your Majesty and the Throne. The preservation of the state sacrifice is the matter of real moment.”

High honors were conferred on Cao Cao. He was appointed Commander of Capital District, Minister of War, and granted Military Insignia.

the two rebels, Li Jue and Guo Si, wished to attack Cao Cao’s army while fatigued from its long march. But their adviser, Jia Xu, opposed this, saying, “There was no hope of victory.

He has both strong soldiers and brave leaders.

Submission may bring us amnesty.”

Li Jue was angry at the suggestion,

crying, “Do you wish to dishearten the army?”

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Byweimiaow

Cao Cao understood and at once prepared his army

Cao Cao understood and at once prepared his army to move. Just at this moment

an imperial messenger was announced with the very command Cao Cao wanted, and Cao Cao immediately set out.

  At Luoyang everything was desolate. the walls had fallen, and there were no means of rebuilding them, while rumors and reports of the coming of Li Jue and Guo Si kept up a state of constant anxiety.

  the frightened Emperor spoke with Yang Feng, saying, “What can be done? There is no answer from the East of Huashang, and our enemies are near.”

  then Yang Feng and Han Xian said, “We, your ministers, will fight to the death for you.”

  But Dong Cheng said, “the fortifications are weak and our military resources small, so that we cannot hope for victory, and what does defeat mean? I see nothing better to propose than a move into the east of Huashang Mountains.”

  the Emperor aGREed to this, and the journey began without further preparation. There being few horses, the officers of the court had to march afoot. Hardly a bowshot outside the gate they saw a thick cloud of dust out of which came all the clash and clamor of an advancing army. The Emperor and his Consort were dumb with fear. Then appeared a horseman; he was the messenger returning from the East of Huashang Mountains.

He rode up to the chariot, made an obeisance, and said, “General Cao Cao, as commanded, is coming with all the military force of the East of Huashang; but hearing that Li Jue and Guo Si had again approached the capital, he has sent Xiahou Dun in advance. With Xiahou Dun are many capable leaders and fifty thousand of proved soldiers. They will guard Your Majesty.”

All fear was swept away. Soon after Xiahou Dun and his staff arrived. Xiahou Dun, Xu Chu,

and Dian Wei were presented to the Emperor who graciously addressed them.

Then one came to say a large army was approaching from the east,

and at the Emperor’s command Xiahou Dun went to ascertain who these were.

He soon returned saying they were Cao Cao’s infantry.

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